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By Mohler F.L.

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It eontains 90 % of the ozone content of the Earth's atmosphere. Ozone absorbs the sun's UVB radiation (280-310 nm) ; this faet ean be easily demonstrated in the laboratory. Stratospherie ozone is therefore of major importanee as a proteetive sereen for the Earth against the sun's radiations. Thus, in the Antaretic, at eaeh austral spring, a sharp deerease in the total ozone layer is observed with respeet to the value in the summer; eorrelatively, a significant inerease in the UVB radiation at ground level is observed.

But in fact, all the radiation emitted does not go back into space. m, as weH as other greenhouse effect gases (CH 4 , N 2 0, CFCs ... ). Table 11 : Energy balance ofthe Earth-atmosphere system (in W m-2). a)Incident radiation balance Incident solar radiation 342 Albedo 102 Stratospheric absorption 12 Tropospheric absorption 64 Lithospheric absorption 164 240 342 b) Balance at the Earth-atmosphere interface Solar Energy 240 Thermal radiation ofthe Earth 400 Greenhouse effect 274 Evaporation ofwater 90 Winds Total 514 24 514 The radiation absorbed is transformed into heat and then re-emitted, still in the infrared, partly towards the Earth and partly towards space.

Stratospherie ozone is therefore of major importanee as a proteetive sereen for the Earth against the sun's radiations. Thus, in the Antaretic, at eaeh austral spring, a sharp deerease in the total ozone layer is observed with respeet to the value in the summer; eorrelatively, a significant inerease in the UVB radiation at ground level is observed. 28 Chapter I - Energy, processes, environment Now, the UVB radiation is likely to have harmful effects on the health ofhuman beings causing melanomas, cataracts, erythemas, by decreasing the effectiveness of the immune system and causing genetic mutations ; it also affects animals and plants and is a cause of the ageing of plastics, paints and vamishes.

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