Download ABC: The Alphabetizaton of the Popular Mind by Ivan Illich, Barry Sanders PDF

By Ivan Illich, Barry Sanders

In ABC... thinker and cultural analyst Ivan Illich and medieval student and literary critic Barry Sanders have produced an unique, meticulous and provocative research of the appearance, unfold and current decline of literacy. They discover he effect of the alphabet on basic concept techniques and attitudes, on reminiscence, on political groupings and religous and cultural expectancies. Their exam of the current erosion of literacy within the new technological languages of 'newspeak' and 'uniquack' and so they indicate how new attitudes to language are changing our international view our feel of self and of group.

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A key hypothesis of these neoclassical approaches, therefore, is that women prefer occupations with higher starting pays, lower returns to experience, and lower penalties for temporary withdrawals. 24 23 Becker 1964, Mincer 1974, Jonung 1996. Researchers, like England (1982: 366) have disproved these considerations by showing that women in pre-dominantly female occupations (like clerical work) also suffer from high penalties for time spent out of the labour market. 24 Explaining occupational sex segregation 39 In sum, women rather seek to combine work and family than gaining a high lifelong income (Filer 1989, Bender et al.

They point out that individual preferences and resources as well as welfare state developments are embedded in a system of norms, beliefs and attitudes about appropriate gender roles and power relations (Hartmann 1976, Blumberg 1978, 1984, Chafetz 1984, Reskin 1988). In contrast to economic and institutional approaches, sociological and feminist theories thus inquire into the origin of gender-specific occupational preferences considering social and cultural constraints with respect to women and paid work.

On the other hand, macro approaches rather emphasise the influence of institutions and structural conditions on the distribution of women and men across occupations (Heintz et al. 1997). In this chapter, the main theoretical approaches are introduced and discussed. In particular, their potential for explaining the horizontal and vertical dimension of occupational sex segregation and cross-national variations will be assessed. In addition, the chapter devotes attention to the central role of educational sex segregation and its translation into the labour market which has rarely been done.

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