By ACI Committee 346
This specification covers building of earth-supported cast-in-place concrete pipe (CIPCP). This specification covers building of CIPCP with a diameter as much as one hundred twenty in. The Architect/Engineer could make this specification appropriate to any venture by way of mentioning it within the undertaking Specification. supplementations could be made via designating or specifying person venture requisites as wanted. This rfile has to be utilized in conjunction with ACI 301. Inclusion of this rfile in a venture Specification, with crucial list goods, will supply worthwhile default values for crucial list goods in ACI 301.
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Additional resources for ACI 346-09: Specification for Cast-in-Place Concrete Pipe
Fig. 5 Why does the wave equation need to be modified? 5 Why does the wave equation need to be modified? 1) is one of the fundamental equations in mathematical physics  and has had a large impact on the development of wave mechanics in many branches of physics. However, it describes the behaviour of a very simple physical situation with basic characteristics of wave motion: velocity, wave fronts, amplitude and wave length. In reality, one should also consider dispersion (as modelled by Eq.
4. For the hierarchical microstructure, the free energy function takes the form [18, 76] W D 1 1 1 . 71) where '1 and '2 are microdeformations ('2 within '1 ) and A1 ; B1 ; B2 ; C1 ; C2 , A12 are coefficients. We get the following expressions for stresses and interactive forces (cf. Eqs. 57)): D . 76) Now the governing equations are (see also ) utt D . 79) B2 '2 ; where I1 and I2 are the corresponding microinertia. For the concurrent microstructure, the free energy is  W D 1 1 1 . 80) 36 3 How to model waves?
Although internal variables are related to dissipative processes in classical treatments, Maugin  indicates the possibility to use them for wave processes as well. As was shown by Ván et al. , a unified treatment of both dissipative and non-dissipative internal processes is possible within the framework of dual internal variable theory. We shall follow this concept, which was further developed in several studies [20, 21, 69]. 2 How to use internal variables in continuum mechanics? 47 Dual internal variables Thus, in the framework of the phenomenological continuum theory, it is assumed that the influence of a microstructure on the overall macroscopic motion of a body can be taken into account by introducing internal variables, which we associate with the integral distributed effect of the microstructure.