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By Paul Feyerabend

Glossy philosophy of technological know-how has paid nice recognition to the certainty of clinical 'practice', not like focus on clinical 'method'. Paul Feyerabend's acclaimed paintings, which has contributed drastically to this new emphasis, exhibits the deficiencies of a few frequent rules in regards to the nature of data. He argues that the single possible motives of clinical successes are historic motives, and that anarchism needs to now substitute rationalism within the idea of information. The 3rd version of this vintage textual content encompasses a new preface and extra reflections at numerous issues during which the writer takes account either one of contemporary debates on technological know-how and at the effect of clinical items and practices at the human group. whereas disavowing populism or relativism, Feyerabend maintains to insist that the voice of the inexpert needs to be heard. therefore many environmental perils have been first pointed out through non-experts opposed to winning assumptions within the clinical neighborhood. Feyerabend's hard reassessment of medical claims and understandings are as stinky and well timed as ever.

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2 This impression would certainly be mistaken. My intention is not to replace one set of general rules by another such set: my intention is, rather, to convince the reader that all methodologies, even the most obvious ones, htlVe their limits. The best way to show this is to demonstrate the limits and even the irrationality of some rules which she, or he, is likely to regard as basic. In the case of induction (including induction by falsification) this means demonstrating how well the counterinductive procedure can be supported by argument.

Merton, Science, Technology and Society in Seventeenth Century England, New York, 1 970 (book version of the 1 938 article). 4 There is no idea, however ancient and absurd, that is not capable of impruving our knowledge. The whole history of thought is absorbed into science and is used for impruving every single theory. Nor is political interference rejeaed. It may be needed to uvercome the chauvinism ofscience that resists alternatives to the status quo. This finishes the discussion of part one of counterinduction dealing with the invention and elaboration of hypotheses inconsistent with a point of view that is highly confirmed and generally accepted.

After Aristotle and Ptolemy, the idea that the earth moves - that strange, ancient, and 'entirely ridiculous',4 Pythagorean view - was thrown on the rubbish heap of history, only to be revived by Copernicus and to be forged by him into a weapon for the defeat of its defeaters. art in this revival, which is still not sufficiently understood, 5 and they were studied with care by the great Newton himself. 6 Such developments are not surprising. No idea is ever examined in all its ramifications and no view is ever given all the chances it deserves.

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