By T M Mustaleski; Rakesh Gupta; Rosalinda O'Neill; American Welding Society
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Extra info for American Welding Society (AWS) user's guide to filler metals
For example, ductility in single-pass welds in thick base metal made outdoors in cold weather without adequate preheating may drop to little more than half that required herein and normally obtained. This does not indicate that either the electrodes or the welds are below standard. It indicates only that the particular production conditions are more severe than the test conditions prescribed by this speciﬁcation. 3 Hydrogen is another factor to be considered in welding. Weld metals, other than those from low-hydrogen electrodes [E(X)XX15-X, E(X)XX16-X, E(X)XX18-X, E(X)XX18M(1), and E(X)XX45-P2], contain signiﬁcant quantities of hydrogen for some period of time after they have been made.
1 Weld-metal properties may vary widely, according to size of the electrode and amperage used, size of the weld beads, base metal thickness, joint geometry, preheat and interpass temperatures, surface condition, base metal composition, dilution, etc. Because of the profound effect of these variables, a test procedure was chosen for this speciﬁcation that would represent good welding practice and minimize variation of the most potent of these variables. 2 It should be recognized, however, that production practices may be different.
For example, an “A1” composition designator identiﬁes the electrode as one that produces carbon-molybdenum steel weld metal, when the electrode is deposited using shielded metal arc welding. 2 Optional designators are also used in this speciﬁcation in order to identify electrodes that have met the mandatory classiﬁcation requirements and certain supplementary requirements as agreed to between the supplier and purchaser. Certain low-hydrogen electrodes may have optional designators. 3. Electrodes that are designated as meeting the lower or lowest hydrogen limits are also understood to be able to meet any higher hydrogen limits, even though these are not necessarily designated along with the electrode classiﬁcation.