By Doris A. Fuchs (auth.)
What is the function of presidency in environmental politics and coverage? the reply to this query was once fairly transparent. govt used to be to control the environmental functionality of kingdom and non-state actors, to set criteria, impose fees, and determine roughly stringent standards of applicable habit. With the expanding visual appeal of the problems of globalization and international governance within the political technology literature, even though, the point of interest has became to the function of non-state actors. educational study and the preferred debate have pointed out company, non-governmental firms (NGOs), and civil society as equivalent to more and more vital and almost certainly strong actors within the political area. even as, a few observers have proclaimed the effect of presidency to be declining. Others have argued that the position of presidency essentially is altering instead of declining. those that undertake the latter viewpoint postulate that the recent function for presidency during this altering political and socio-economic context is to set the framework for motion. during this standpoint, govt continues to be of primary value for the functioning of the society, the financial system, and political decision-making, yet its position is various in that executive 'merely' offers the institutional framework facilitating wanted outcomes.
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Additional info for An Institutional Basis for Environmental Stewardship: The Structure and Quality of Property Rights
I. :1 in GDP 1970-1990)* Trade Balance** S02 in 1970** Population Density** Urbanization** Post-Materialism** Trade I, Openness 32 industrialized, 24 OECD l Countries (Cities) in Sample Inflation Debt Ilglm3 S& B Invest- Unemployment ment microg/m3 Janicke et al. Study Unit of Measurement annual kg/cap Study Table 2 6. S:l § is" ...... ~ ~ ~. '-I % of territory annual kg TOE/cap % of popUlation without access J. eta!. J. et a!. S&B S&B Energy Consumption Lack of Safe Drinking Water Lack of Sanitation Energy 1.
4). Finally, Janicke et al. argue that the likely causal pattern behind these divergent paths is the structure of the environmental problem and the ease of solution. They postulate that environmental quality will improve with rising GDP if a problem can be solved through technological add-ons or modified regulation such as the protection and conservation of specific areas. If, however, such a technological or administrative solution is not available or requires significant intervention in markets and established routines, environmental quality will worsen as GDP increases.
They postulate that environmental quality will improve with rising GDP if a problem can be solved through technological add-ons or modified regulation such as the protection and conservation of specific areas. If, however, such a technological or administrative solution is not available or requires significant intervention in markets and established routines, environmental quality will worsen as GDP increases. A complete explanation, of course, has to include all three aspects: Given that at higher per capita incomes more resources (financial and technological) are available for environmental protection, and concern about other aspects such as food or shelter is less prevalent, 28 improvements in environmental quality will be most likely if the pollution or environmental degradation has significant local impacts and if the problem can be solved through (available) technological add-ons or modified regulation without significant intervention in markets and established routines.